I've dreamt in my life dreams that have stayed with me ever after, and changed my ideas: they've gone through and through me, like wine through water, and altered the color of my mind.
Emily Bronte
Wuthering Heights

woensdag 17 juni 2009

Kleding in het Victoriaanse tijdperk

In die tijd was alles er op gericht om de vrouwen zo klein mogelijk te laten lijken, misschien gedeeltelijk uit eerbied voor koningin Victoria, die uitzonderlijk klein van stuk was. Maar het kan ook hebben bijgedragen aan haar onderdanige positie.Naast de sociale gedragsregels, bestonden er vele voorschriften met betrekking tot de verschillende kledingstukken die de vrouw tijdens haar dagelijkse activiteiten diende te dragen.
Globaal gesproken werd de pelisse-robe ’s morgens in huis gedragen, de redingote op de wandeling en de fraaiere ronde japon bij middagvisites. De peignoir was een huiselijk kledingstuk dat enkel ‘s morgens werd gedragen, maar het was geen ochtendjas. Het woord dat er het dichtst in de buurt komt is een kamerjas.
Overdag droeg men in huis wijdvallende mouwen die driekwart lang waren. Onder de korte nauwe tailleurjasjes pasten deze natuurlijk niet, zodat men wel de zogenaamde engageantes, losse valse mouwen, droeg die van hetzelfde stof waren als het lijfje of van witte mousseline of linnen. Stroken, franjes en galons werden rijkelijk toegepast, evenals sierknopen op tailleurjasjes en vesten.

De crinoline


Van 1840 tot omstreeks 1870 werd de damesmode vooral bepaald door de crinoline. De crinoline is een steunvorm voor de wijduitstaande rokken (die toen erg in de mode waren) van de vrouwen. Hoe breder, hoe beter. Meestal werd er dan ook nog een tournure boven gedragen. Dat is een versiersel wat op het achterste kan worden vastgemaakt (zie het als een soort opgevuld half schort met allemaal versiersels, maar dan achterstevoren gedragen) waardoor het achterwerk groter leek dan normaal.
Er waren verschillende soorten crinolines. De eerste crinolines waren erg bescheiden, namelijk een met paardenhaar (crin) verstevigde onderrok. Het goedkoopst en dus het populairste was die van stalen veren. De “Thompson”-crinoline was het lichtst en dus het duurst, en werd dan ook alleen door dames gedragen die erg rijk waren. Er was ook nog een poosje het idee van een crinoline met
rubberslangen erin, die met meer of minder lucht kon worden gevuld, wijder of minder wijd kon uitstaan. Maar aangezien de rubberslangen snel lek raakten werd dat geen groot succes.
De meeste crinolines konden aan de voorkant open en dicht zodat hij makkelijk aangetrokken kon worden. Ze waren rond en ovaal, variërend in afmetingen, van redelijke omvang tot enorme wijdten.

§ 3.3 Avondkleding
De avondkleding was rijkelijk van kant en borduursel voorzien. Op de wijde rokken zaten stroken en linten, ook wel kleine, vaak moeilijk van echt te onderscheiden bloemcorsages met kunstbloemen. Men droeg ook wel avondlijfjes op een rok voor overdag. De avondjaponnen hadden een schouderdecolleté met een lage, rechte halslijn, soms middenvoor even dieper uitgesneden. Dit laatste decolleté heette een en coeur. Het decolleté was bijna altijd afgewerkt met een horizontaal geplooide strook of een berthe, een kanten kraag die van de bovenkant van het lijfje tot halverwege de mouw reikte en opgemaakt was met ruches of lint. Het lijfje liep uit in een punt en was met baleinen verstevigd. Daagse japonnen waren bij voorkeur van fijn zwart laken, merinoswol foulardzijde, organdie, gingang (gestreept katoen) of dunne mousseline, avondjaponnen van changeantzijde of fluweel. Buitenshuis werden verschillende soorten kledingstukken gedragen. De sjaal was weer terug, vaak heel groot met een brede franjerand.

§ 3.4 Rijkleding
De rijkleding van de dames was aan strenge regels verbonden. Een rijbroek van antilope leer vond men onmisbaar. Van de knie tot de voet overtrok men deze met dezelfde stof als de rij rok die eroverheen gedragen werd.
Schoenen hadden zelden een hak. Het meest werden instapschoentjes gedragen, die soms als balletschoentjes met veters of linten om de enkels gebonden werden. Ze waren van zijde of crêpe in bij de japonnen passende kleuren. Hoe smaller de voet was, hoe deftiger. Op straat werden gewoonlijk stoffen laarzen gedragen met elastieken zijkanten, maar de ongelofelijk keurige dames kwamen eigenlijk niet buiten.

1 opmerking:

  1. Bedankt alvast voor deze nuttige informatie, dit heeft mij veel geholpen tijden mijn zoektocht voor mijn eindwerk.

    Bedankt!

    BeantwoordenVerwijderen

Parsonage

Parsonage

Charlotte Bronte

Presently the door opened, and in came a superannuated mastiff, followed by an old gentleman very like Miss Bronte, who shook hands with us, and then went to call his daughter. A long interval, during which we coaxed the old dog, and looked at a picture of Miss Bronte, by Richmond, the solitary ornament of the room, looking strangely out of place on the bare walls, and at the books on the little shelves, most of them evidently the gift of the authors since Miss Bronte's celebrity. Presently she came in, and welcomed us very kindly, and took me upstairs to take off my bonnet, and herself brought me water and towels. The uncarpeted stone stairs and floors, the old drawers propped on wood, were all scrupulously clean and neat. When we went into the parlour again, we began talking very comfortably, when the door opened and Mr. Bronte looked in; seeing his daughter there, I suppose he thought it was all right, and he retreated to his study on the opposite side of the passage; presently emerging again to bring W---- a country newspaper. This was his last appearance till we went. Miss Bronte spoke with the greatest warmth of Miss Martineau, and of the good she had gained from her. Well! we talked about various things; the character of the people, - about her solitude, etc., till she left the room to help about dinner, I suppose, for she did not return for an age. The old dog had vanished; a fat curly-haired dog honoured us with his company for some time, but finally manifested a wish to get out, so we were left alone. At last she returned, followed by the maid and dinner, which made us all more comfortable; and we had some very pleasant conversation, in the midst of which time passed quicker than we supposed, for at last W---- found that it was half-past three, and we had fourteen or fifteen miles before us. So we hurried off, having obtained from her a promise to pay us a visit in the spring... ------------------- "She cannot see well, and does little beside knitting. The way she weakened her eyesight was this: When she was sixteen or seventeen, she wanted much to draw; and she copied nimini-pimini copper-plate engravings out of annuals, ('stippling,' don't the artists call it?) every little point put in, till at the end of six months she had produced an exquisitely faithful copy of the engraving. She wanted to learn to express her ideas by drawing. After she had tried to draw stories, and not succeeded, she took the better mode of writing; but in so small a hand, that it is almost impossible to decipher what she wrote at this time.

I asked her whether she had ever taken opium, as the description given of its effects in Villette was so exactly like what I had experienced, - vivid and exaggerated presence of objects, of which the outlines were indistinct, or lost in golden mist, etc. She replied, that she had never, to her knowledge, taken a grain of it in any shape, but that she had followed the process she always adopted when she had to describe anything which had not fallen within her own experience; she had thought intently on it for many and many a night before falling to sleep, - wondering what it was like, or how it would be, - till at length, sometimes after the progress of her story had been arrested at this one point for weeks, she wakened up in the morning with all clear before her, as if she had in reality gone through the experience, and then could describe it, word for word, as it had happened. I cannot account for this psychologically; I only am sure that it was so, because she said it. ----------------------She thought much of her duty, and had loftier and clearer notions of it than most people, and held fast to them with more success. It was done, it seems to me, with much more difficulty than people have of stronger nerves, and better fortunes. All her life was but labour and pain; and she never threw down the burden for the sake of present pleasure. I don't know what use you can make of all I have said. I have written it with the strong desire to obtain appreciation for her. Yet, what does it matter? She herself appealed to the world's judgement for her use of some of the faculties she had, - not the best, - but still the only ones she could turn to strangers' benefit. They heartily, greedily enjoyed the fruits of her labours, and then found out she was much to be blamed for possessing such faculties. Why ask for a judgement on her from such a world?" elizabeth gaskell/charlotte bronte



Poem: No coward soul is mine

No coward soul is mine,
No trembler in the worlds storm-troubled sphere:
I see Heavens glories shine,
And faith shines equal, arming me from fear.


O God within my breast.
Almighty, ever-present Deity!
Life -- that in me has rest,
As I -- Undying Life -- have power in Thee!


Vain are the thousand creeds
That move mens hearts: unutterably vain;
Worthless as withered weeds,
Or idlest froth amid the boundless main,


To waken doubt in one
Holding so fast by Thine infinity;
So surely anchored on
The steadfast Rock of immortality.


With wide-embracing love
Thy Spirit animates eternal years,
Pervades and broods above,
Changes, sustains, dissolves, creates, and rears.


Though earth and man were gone,
And suns and universes ceased to be,
And Thou wert left alone,
Every existence would exist in Thee.


There is not room for Death,
Nor atom that his might could render void:
Thou -- Thou art Being and Breath,
And what Thou art may never be destroyed.


--
Emily Bronte

Family tree

The Bronte Family

Grandparents - paternal
Hugh Brunty was born 1755 and died circa 1808. He married Eleanor McClory, known as Alice in 1776.

Grandparents - maternal
Thomas Branwell (born 1746 died 5th April 1808) was married in 1768 to Anne Carne (baptised 27th April 1744 and died 19th December 1809).

Parents
Father was Patrick Bronte, the eldest of 10 children born to Hugh Brunty and Eleanor (Alice) McClory. He was born 17th March 1777 and died on 7th June 1861. Mother was Maria Branwell, who was born on 15th April 1783 and died on 15th September 1821.

Maria had a sister, Elizabeth who was known as Aunt Branwell. She was born in 1776 and died on 29th October 1842.

Patrick Bronte married Maria Branwell on 29th December 1812.

The Bronte Children
Patrick and Maria Bronte had six children.
The first child was Maria, who was born in 1814 and died on 6th June 1825.
The second daughter, Elizabeth was born on 8th February 1815 and died shortly after Maria on 15th June 1825. Charlotte was the third daughter, born on 21st April 1816.

Charlotte married Arthur Bell Nicholls (born 1818) on 29th June 1854. Charlotte died on 31st March 1855. Arthur lived until 2nd December 1906.

The first and only son born to Patrick and Maria was Patrick Branwell, who was born on 26th June 1817 and died on 24th September 1848.

Emily Jane, the fourth daughter was born on 30th July 1818 and died on 19th December 1848.

The sixth and last child was Anne, born on 17th January 1820 who died on 28th May 1849.

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